India’s dubious title as the world’s diabetes capital is reflected in its infertility clinics as well, with nearly half of the males who went in the last six months have raised sugar levels.
If diabetes is not effectively controlled, it can harm the heart, kidneys, eyes, and neurological system. “We also know that some types of diabetes can induce sperm fragmentation, erectile dysfunction, or a lack of enthusiasm in sex,” said Dr. Hrishikesh Pai, India’s IVF specialist.
According to the International Diabetic Foundation, diabetes affects 72 million Indians, or 8.8% of the adult population. Diabetes affects over 10% of India’s adult population, according to estimates.
Diabetes is known to harm D.N.A. “Because of diabetes, the impregnation may take longer or miscarriages may occur,” stated Dr. Hrishikesh Pai, M.D., F.C.P.S., F.I.C.O.G. MSc (U.S.A.).
Sugar levels and IVF:
Doctors frequently encourage couples considering IVF (in vitro fertilization) to get their sugar levels under control for at least six months before attempting to conceive. “The high levels of stress in metropolitan areas, along with a lack of exercise and poor eating and sleeping habits, is certainly having an impact on people,” said the Indian IVF specialist.
Because India’s metropolitan centers are ravaged by the twin epidemics of hypertension and diabetes, increased blood sugar levels in men visiting IVF clinics are unsurprising. Diabetes is more likely in people who smoke, chew tobacco, or have high uric acid levels or the beginnings of heart disease. Smoking should be avoided, food should be eaten slowly, salt should be avoided, and exercise should be done regularly.
Does diabetes affect your capacity to conceive?
Yes, diabetes has been shown to affect your capacity to conceive and deliver a healthy kid. Diabetes is known to influence both men’s and women’s fertility and reproductive health. Diabetes can affect hormones, causing implantation and pregnancy to be delayed or unsuccessful. Diabetes is also linked to poor sperm and embryo quality and D.N.A. damage (genetic mutations and deletions).
Glucose is the body’s primary source of energy. Insulin, a glucose-absorbing hormone generated by the pancreas, usually keeps glucose demand and blood glucose levels in check. The body glucose levels remain in a safe range when glucose consumption is adequately regulated. Otherwise, the person may experience signs or symptoms of diabetes or reduced glucose tolerance.
Diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas either does not create enough insulin (Type I diabetes) or does not work correctly (Type II diabetes) (Type 2 diabetes). Diabetes affects more than 180 million people worldwide, according to the WHO. Type 1 diabetes is increasing at an alarming pace of 3% each year over the world.
Female infertility and diabetes:
Systematic studies of the metabolic effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the hypothalamus-pituitary–ovary (H.P.O.) axis have revealed a link between these diseases and menstrual disturbances. Disturbances like delayed menarche (puberty), alterations in the menstrual rhythm (including primary and secondary amenorrhoea), and potential implications for fertility.
What effect does diabetes have on fertility?
Diabetic women are more prone to infection and damage to reproductive organs, particularly the fallopian tubes, due to genitourinary disorders.
High blood glucose levels during pregnancy might lead to miscarriage or congenital abnormalities in the fetus. Macrosomia is caused by high blood glucose levels and excessive feeding for the growing fetus (big baby syndrome).
Reduced libido: Most diabetic women experience reduced sexual desire due to fatigue, despair, and worry. Women may experience pain and discomfort during sex due to a lack of vaginal lubrication.
What is the impact of type 1 diabetes on female fertility?
Type 1 diabetes is linked to a longer menstrual cycle (>31 days), more prolonged menstruation (>6 days), heavier menstruation, and menstrual issues at a younger age (29 years). Menarche is delayed in children with type 1 diabetes.
Anovulation is defined as the lack of ovulation when it would typically occur (in a post-menarche, premenopausal woman). Anovulation can be caused by several things, including severe mental illness, hormonal imbalances, pituitary or ovarian dysfunction, and diabetes.
Diabetic women with a low B.M.I. will have irregular periods, resulting in cell starvation (intracellular starvation). This could impair the hypothalamic pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), resulting in a reduction in gonadotropin secretion. This causes a drop in luteinizing hormone (L.H.) and prolactin levels, both of which are important in reproduction.
Anti-sperm antibodies: Antibodies produced by diabetes have the potential to harm sperm and eggs.
What is the impact of type 2 diabetes on female fertility?
Diabetes, obesity, and PCOS: Type 2 diabetes is most common in postmenopausal women, although obesity is on the rise due to modern food and lifestyle habits, increasing the risk of Type 2 diabetes throughout reproductive years.
Obesity is connected to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome as well as irregular menstrual cycles (PCOS). An overabundance of androgens (male hormones), cysts on the ovaries, and inconsistent menstrual cycles/lack of ovulation characterize this metabolic condition. Insulin resistance is present in 50-70 percent of women with PCOS.
Adiponectin is an anti-obesity hormone that enhances insulin sensitivity. Lower levels of adiponectin cause insulin sensitivity and fat breakdown in women with PCOS. As a result, PCOS coexists alongside diabetes and obesity, posing a triple danger to reproductive health and fertility.
The most effective strategy to address insulin resistance, boost fertility, and prevent Type 2 diabetes and its complications is losing weight with a good diet and exercise program.
Male infertility and diabetes:
What effect does diabetes have on male fertility?
According to India’s leading IVF doctor, diabetes decreases men’s capacity to maintain an erection, which leads to infertility.
Reduced libido: In men, a lack of glucose (the brain’s primary energy source) in particular parts of the brain can lead to weariness, weakness, and decreased sexual drive.
What is the impact of type 1 diabetes on male fertility?
Diabetes is linked to increasing nuclear, mitochondrial, and D.N.A. damage in sperm, limiting men’s reproductive capabilities.
What is the impact of type 2 diabetes on male fertility?
Sperm quality: Type 2 diabetes is linked to low sperm concentration and motility in the sperm. In people with type 2 diabetes, structural damage to the sperm and its D.N.A. has also been observed.
Managing diabetes and infertility at the same time:
For both men and women, treating infertility with diabetes involves enhanced control over blood sugars (glycemic control), reproductive hormones, and functions. Infertility is frequently diagnosed and treated by looking at the couple’s medical and family histories together.
What are the different treatment options for diabetes?
Your endocrinologist may suggest treatment options such as oral medications or insulin. Sometimes, associated treatment options like weight loss surgery may also be advised.